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开发区商业模式介绍

来源:注册海外公司上海站 发表时间:2012-01-13 21:27 点击:

 

几乎所有中国的开发区都是政府拥有的。开发区通常有两个机构,一是开发区管理委员会;二是开发区有限公司。前者是开发区所在地域的政府派出机构,执行该区域的政府职能。开发区有限公司是一个经济实体,从事土地开发、基础设施建设、招商引资和企业服务。两者都由地方政府全面控制。

Most of industrial parks in China, possessed by local government, are operated under two groups—administration committee and industrial park company. The former executes government functions, which is a sub-organization from local government; The Latter is a economic entity, developing land and basic utilities, recruiting business, and serving companies in Parks. Both of two groups are under overall control of local government.

 

开发区的商业模式需要解释的是单纯从开发区运营的角度来看开发区的成本和收入状况,以判断把开发区作为一个企业看待时,它的盈利模式和可持续性。

Business model behind Parks is profitable and sustainable, or not, due to the cost and revenue of parks, which should be viewed as a company.

 

开发区的成本构成:

Costs of the Parks:

1, 土地开发成本:该成本包括农民的动迁补偿、农民的养老补偿、农作物的补偿。

Cost of development includes compensation for house-moving, loss of crops, pensions to farmers who was the owner of the land before land was developed.

2, 各级政府收费:该部分在土地出让时,由各级政府收取。该部分约占工业用地出让价格的70%。

Fees to levels of government is charged when the land is transferred, which accounts for 70% of all industrial land price.

3, 基础设施费用:包括道路、各类地下管路。

Cost of basic utility is expended on facilities such as roads, water pipes etc.

4, 日常管理费用:

Overheads is the cost for daily managements of company and committee.

 

5, 财务成本:开发区开发早期通常都从银行获得贷款,需要支付高额利息。

Financial cost is the interest Parks should pay to Banks, which Parks got a loan from banks on the purpose of operation and development at earlier time.

开发区的收入:Revenue of the Parks

1, 土地出让金的留存部分。即客户缴纳的土地出让金,在扣除各级政府收费后的留存部分。

Revenue comes from partial land price, which deducts fees to levels of government.

2, 开发区内企业的税收留存。即开发区内企业缴纳的税收,在扣除各级政府留存之后剩余的部分。

Revenue comes from taxes of companies in the Parks, which deducts allocation parts to levels of government.

开发区的盈利模式就由如下公式构成:Formula of business model as follows:

净现值=开发区土地出让收入的留存部分(1)+ 开发区内企业的税收留存的贴现值(2)- 开发区的成本(3)

NPV=Revenue of Land (1) + Discounted value of Revenue of Taxes (2) – Costs of the Park (3)

把开发区作为一个整体来看,上述公式中(1)和(3)项相对固定,那么(2)项构成开发区经营状况的核心因素。

As a whole, (1) and (3) in above formula are relatively fixed, and (2) is the core factor influencing the Park on operations.

即构成开发区盈利的核心因素,是开发区内企业持续纳税的能力和纳税的数量。通常也就是开发区内企业的质量。

It is clear that the main factor by which the park profits is the ability to pay taxes in a long run and the volume of total paid taxes. That is also defined as quality of companies in Parks.

 

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